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Navigating the Financial Storm: Bangladesh Bank’s Urgent Call for Effective Defaulted Loan Recovery

Bangladesh Central Bank

Bangladesh finds itself at a critical juncture as it confronts a profound crisis within its banking sector, characterized by an unprecedented surge in loan defaults that surpasses international benchmarks. The recently published Bangladesh Bank Report serves as a stark revelation, illuminating the severity of the predicament. The alarming figure of defaulted loans has skyrocketed to an astonishing 1 lakh 55 thousand 397 crores, posing an imminent threat to the very foundation of the country’s economic stability.

In order to comprehend the depth of this crisis, it becomes imperative to delve into the historical roots that have set the stage for the current turmoil. Decades of economic evolution, policy decisions, and banking practices have woven a complex tapestry that has ultimately led to the precarious situation at hand. This article seeks to unravel the layers of this historical context, providing insights into the factors that have contributed to the present state of affairs.

As we navigate through the intricacies of the contemporary banking crisis, it becomes evident that the implications are far-reaching, extending beyond the balance sheets of financial institutions. The repercussions reverberate throughout the entire economic ecosystem, affecting businesses, employment, and the overall well-being of the population. It is against this backdrop that we undertake an analysis of the immediate challenges faced by the banking sector, exploring the factors that have fueled the surge in loan defaults.

Moreover, the gravity of the situation demands a proactive examination of potential solutions. It is not merely a matter of identifying the culprits or assigning blame; rather, the focus must shift towards crafting viable strategies that can rectify the systemic issues plaguing the banking sector. By proposing and evaluating possible solutions, this article aims to contribute to the discourse on how Bangladesh can navigate out of this perilous situation and lay the groundwork for a more robust and resilient banking system.

In essence, this article endeavors to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted crisis gripping Bangladesh’s banking sector, shedding light on its historical underpinnings, dissecting the present challenges, and charting a course towards sustainable solutions. Only through such a holistic examination can stakeholders, policymakers, and the public at large work collaboratively to forge a path towards financial stability and economic prosperity.


Bangladesh Bank report for Take effective measures to recover defaulted loans:

The Bangladesh Bank report underscores the critical imperative of implementing effective measures to recover defaulted loans, recognizing the substantial impact of the prevailing crisis on the country’s economic stability. The report serves as a clarion call for concerted efforts and strategic interventions to address the alarming default rates that have surpassed international benchmarks. It highlights the urgency of adopting measures that go beyond the status quo, signaling a departure from existing practices that have proven insufficient in curtailing the rising tide of defaulted loans.

In dissecting the call for effective measures, the report emphasizes the need for a comprehensive approach that encompasses legal, regulatory, and institutional dimensions. This involves leveraging existing legal frameworks such as the Banking Companies Act, the Financial Institutions Act, and the Artha Rin Adalat Ain to their full potential. The report underscores the importance of specialized tribunals, Artha Rin Adalats, as instrumental in expediting the legal proceedings related to defaulted loans, thereby facilitating a more agile and responsive resolution process.

Furthermore, the report implies a broader call for reforms in governance and risk management within financial institutions. It suggests a need for stringent oversight and accountability measures to prevent willful defaulters, often wielding significant political or economic influence, from evading the repercussions of their actions. The emphasis on transparency and adherence to ethical practices is implicit in the report’s plea for effective measures, highlighting the importance of rebuilding public trust in the banking sector.

In essence, the Bangladesh Bank report serves as a catalyst for change, urging stakeholders, policymakers, and financial institutions to collaboratively devise and implement innovative strategies for recovering defaulted loans. It signals a pivotal moment in which the nation must confront the intricacies of its economic challenges and chart a course toward a more resilient and accountable banking sector.

Historical Context:

The recurrent breach of international standards concerning default rates within Bangladesh’s banking sector has emerged as a troubling trend, sparking deep-seated concerns among financial experts and policymakers alike. Notably, previous quarters have borne witness to record-breaking levels of defaulted loans, signaling a systemic flaw that transcends short-term fluctuations. The persistently escalating default rates, which have reached an alarming magnitude, underscore a critical issue—namely, the inadequacy of existing recovery measures. Despite various attempts to curtail the rising tide of defaulted loans, the challenge persists, highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive and sustainable strategy to address the root causes of the problem.

In the backdrop of the last six months, the precarious economic scenario has been exacerbated by a staggering increase of Tk 23 thousand 777 crores in defaulted loans. This substantial surge not only amplifies the gravity of the issue but also paints a disheartening picture of the economic landscape. It underscores a pressing need for immediate intervention and the formulation of a strategic plan that goes beyond mere short-term alleviation. The trajectory of this concerning trend demands a profound examination of historical factors contributing to the persistence of defaulted loans, paving the way for nuanced solutions that can arrest further deterioration and foster a more resilient and stable banking environment.

Laws Governing Defaulted Loan Recovery:

In Bangladesh, the legal framework surrounding defaulted loans and their recovery is a critical component of the financial ecosystem. The laws governing defaulted loan recovery are designed to strike a balance between protecting the rights of creditors and ensuring fair treatment of debtors. The legal process for recovery typically involves a series of well-defined steps that provide a structured approach to address default situations. The primary legislation governing this domain is the Banking Companies Act, which empowers financial institutions to take legal action against defaulters. Additionally, the Financial Institutions Act and the Artha Rin Adalat Ain contribute to the legal arsenal available for recovering defaulted loans.

The legal procedures for defaulted loan recovery in Bangladesh involve the initiation of legal actions through specialized tribunals known as Artha Rin Adalats. These courts are dedicated to handling financial cases, providing a focused and expedited avenue for resolving disputes related to defaulted loans. The legal framework outlines the rights and responsibilities of both creditors and debtors, ensuring due process and fairness throughout the recovery proceedings. Importantly, these laws empower financial institutions to seek remedies such as attachment of properties, auctioning of assets, and other measures to recover the outstanding debts.

However, the effectiveness of these legal provisions can be influenced by various factors, including the efficiency of the legal system, the enforcement of judgments, and potential challenges in identifying and prosecuting defaulters. Striking the right balance between the strict enforcement of recovery laws and protecting the legitimate rights of debtors remains an ongoing challenge, necessitating periodic reviews and adjustments to the legal framework to adapt to the evolving financial landscape. In navigating the complexities of defaulted loan recovery, a robust and adaptive legal framework is crucial for maintaining the integrity of the financial system and ensuring fair and efficient resolution of default cases.

Why the banks not take necessary action by “Artha Rin Adalat” against the defaulted loans?

1. Legal Process and Delays:

   The legal system, including Artha Rin Adalat, operates within a structured framework, involving a series of steps that can be time-consuming. Banks may be hesitant to initiate legal proceedings due to the potential for prolonged court battles and delays in reaching a resolution. The protracted legal process can strain the resources of the bank and tie up valuable time, leading to a reluctance to pursue this avenue unless absolutely necessary.

2. Recovery Costs:

   Pursuing legal action comes with its own set of expenses, including legal fees, court charges, and administrative overhead. If the anticipated costs of recovery exceed the potential amount that can be reclaimed from the borrower, the bank may decide that taking legal action is not a cost-effective approach. In such cases, banks might explore alternative methods of debt resolution that are more economically viable.

3. Collateral Value:

   The decision to pursue legal action may hinge on the value and liquidity of the collateral securing the loan. If the collateral’s value is insufficient to cover the outstanding debt, taking legal action may not be a priority for the bank. In such instances, the bank might consider other avenues, such as negotiating a settlement or exploring options for debt restructuring.

4. Economic Conditions:

   The broader economic context plays a significant role in shaping a bank’s approach to defaulted loans. In challenging economic environments, where financial instability is a concern, banks may be more inclined to adopt a cautious strategy. Rather than immediately resorting to legal measures, they might explore alternatives such as restructuring the debt to facilitate a more sustainable resolution.

5. Debtor’s Financial Situation:

   Banks may take into account the financial circumstances of the borrower before deciding on a course of action. If the borrower is genuinely facing financial hardship, the bank may be more inclined to work collaboratively to find a solution. Legal action might be seen as a last resort, with efforts focused on debt restructuring, renegotiation of terms, or other measures that take the borrower’s financial difficulties into consideration.

6. Regulatory and Prudential Considerations:

   Regulatory guidelines and prudential norms provide a framework for how financial institutions manage non-performing assets. Banks are often required to adhere to specific procedures and guidelines, and these regulatory considerations can influence their approach to dealing with defaulted loans. Compliance with these regulations may impact the speed and manner in which legal actions are pursued.

7. Efficiency of Legal System:

   The efficiency and effectiveness of the legal system, including Artha Rin Adalat, can influence a bank’s decision-making process. If the legal process is perceived as slow, unpredictable, or inefficient, banks may be less motivated to initiate legal proceedings. A lack of confidence in the legal system’s ability to deliver timely and fair resolutions could lead banks to explore alternative methods of resolving defaulted loans.

8. Risk Aversion:

   Banks, as risk-averse entities, may prioritize maintaining positive relationships with customers and avoiding negative publicity. Engaging in protracted legal battles can be seen as a risky move that may harm the bank’s reputation. Consequently, banks might prefer to explore negotiated settlements or alternative solutions to resolve defaulted loans without resorting to the potentially adversarial nature of legal action.

In summary, the decision-making process for banks regarding defaulted loans is a nuanced one, influenced by a combination of legal, financial, economic, and regulatory factors. Each defaulted loan presents a unique set of circumstances, and banks must carefully weigh these considerations to determine the most appropriate course of action.

Present Problems for recovery the loans :

The present problems for the recovery of defaulted loans in Bangladesh are multifaceted, presenting a formidable challenge to the financial sector’s stability and economic well-being. One of the primary issues lies in the persistently high default rates, despite efforts to implement recovery measures. The sheer magnitude of defaulted loans, as reflected in recent data, reveals a significant portion of the financial system under stress, hindering its ability to function optimally.

Moreover, the percentage of defaulted loans, standing at an alarming 10.11 percent of the total disbursed loans in the banking sector by the end of the June quarter, exceeds acceptable international benchmarks. This not only reflects systemic weaknesses but also raises questions about the adequacy and effectiveness of the existing recovery mechanisms. The failure to meet the conditions set by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for its loan to Bangladesh further compounds the economic challenges, underscoring the need for urgent and strategic interventions.

Corruption emerges as a root cause, permeating the economic landscape and contributing to high inflation, a dollar crisis, money laundering, and instability in import-export dynamics. Willful defaulters, often individuals with considerable influence, escape accountability, undermining efforts to instill discipline in the banking sector. The nexus between corruption and economic challenges exacerbates the difficulties in defaulted loan recovery, requiring a comprehensive approach that addresses both financial and systemic issues.

To comprehensively tackle the present problems in defaulted loan recovery, stringent action against corruption and enhanced accountability measures for bank officials are imperative. The intertwining of economic challenges with corrupt practices necessitates a holistic strategy that not only targets immediate recovery but also addresses the root causes, fostering a more resilient and transparent financial system in Bangladesh. Here is the some reasons for failed to recovery the defaulted loans:

1. Stubbornly High Default Rates: 

Despite the implementation of special facilities, Bangladesh’s banking sector grapples with a persistently high default rate. This financial quagmire is hindering the sector’s functionality and compromising its ability to contribute meaningfully to the country’s economic stability.

2. Excessive Default Percentage: 

The latest data underscores the magnitude of the issue, revealing that defaulted loans constitute a daunting 10.11 percent of the total disbursed loans in the banking sector as of the June quarter. This figure significantly surpasses international benchmarks, raising concerns about the adequacy and effectiveness of existing recovery measures.

3. IMF Loan Conditions Unmet: 

The failure to meet the conditions set by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for its loan to Bangladesh adds a layer of complexity to the economic challenges. This not only signals a strain on the country’s financial credibility but also underscores the urgency of addressing the defaulted loans issue as part of broader economic reforms.

4. Corruption as the Root Cause: 

Experts argue that corruption is the linchpin of various economic challenges, permeating the system and giving rise to issues such as high inflation, a looming dollar crisis, money laundering, and instability in import-export dynamics. Tackling defaulted loans requires addressing the root cause of corruption, as it directly undermines recovery efforts and financial discipline.

5. Willful Defaulters and Lack of Accountability:

 The presence of powerful individuals as willful defaulters poses a unique challenge. These influential figures often escape accountability, further undermining efforts to bring discipline to the banking sector. To comprehensively address the defaulted loans crisis, there is an urgent need for stringent action against corruption and enhanced accountability measures for bank officials.

In navigating the present problem of defaulted loans, it is crucial to adopt a multifaceted approach that not only addresses immediate recovery measures but also delves into the systemic issues fueling this crisis. Only through a comprehensive strategy that tackles corruption at its core and ensures accountability can Bangladesh pave the way for a resilient and stable banking sector, capable of contributing positively to the nation’s economic well-being.

Political Influence on Recovery Loans in Bangladesh:

Political dynamics play a pivotal role in shaping the landscape of recovery loans in Bangladesh, adding a layer of complexity to an already challenging economic environment. The interplay between political forces and financial recovery initiatives often introduces a dimension of uncertainty and potential bias, impacting the efficacy of loan recovery strategies. In Bangladesh, where political affiliations can hold significant sway, the allocation and management of recovery loans can become entangled in a web of vested interests, hindering the impartial execution of recovery measures.

One significant manifestation of political influence lies in the identification and treatment of defaulters. The perception of political patronage can shield certain individuals or entities from stringent recovery actions, creating an environment where accountability is compromised. This selective approach not only distorts the recovery process but also erodes public trust in the banking sector’s ability to operate independently of political pressures. As a result, the effectiveness of recovery measures becomes contingent on the political climate, potentially impeding the timely resolution of defaulted loans.

Moreover, the politicization of recovery loans can influence the allocation of resources, with decisions driven by political considerations rather than economic merit. This can divert funds away from sectors that urgently require financial support for genuine economic development. The politicization of recovery loans in Bangladesh underscores the need for transparent and independent mechanisms that insulate financial processes from undue political interference. Establishing safeguards to ensure the impartiality of recovery initiatives is crucial for restoring confidence in the banking sector and fostering a climate conducive to economic growth and stability.

proposed for  Potential Solutions:

1. Anti-Corruption Measures:

   – Strengthen anti-corruption bodies to investigate and prosecute willful defaulters.

   – Establish a transparent and independent process to ensure that influential individuals are not shielded from legal consequences.


2. Legal Reforms:

   – Enhance the legal framework related to debt collection to facilitate swifter and more effective recovery processes.

   – Introduce laws that specifically address rescheduled and restructured loans, as well as doubtful loans, aligning with IMF conditions.

3. Accountability of Bank Officials:

   – Implement strict measures to prevent bank officials from engaging in corruption and irregularities.

   – Foster a culture of accountability within the banking sector, ensuring that officials adhere to ethical standards.

4. Public Awareness and Morality:

   – Launch public awareness campaigns highlighting the economic impact of defaulted loans.

   – Emphasize the moral responsibility of debtors to repay their loans promptly, fostering a culture of financial integrity.

5. International Collaboration:

   – Seek collaboration with international organizations and financial institutions to gain insights into successful strategies for resolving defaulted loan crises.

   – Explore partnerships that can provide technical assistance and expertise in implementing effective recovery measures.


As Bangladesh grapples with the unprecedented defaulted loan crisis, it is evident that the challenges extend far beyond the economic realm. The time has come for the nation to embark on a transformative journey, implementing immediate and decisive actions that cut to the root of the crisis. Addressing the pervasive issues of corruption, coupled with a resolute commitment to enforcing debt recovery measures, is paramount. Only through a comprehensive approach that includes stringent measures, ethical financial practices, and accountability for willful defaulters can Bangladesh navigate through this critical juncture.


The success of these measures holds the key not only to the nation’s economic prosperity but also to its standing on the global stage. Bangladesh has an opportunity to set a precedent for responsible financial practices, showcasing resilience, transparency, and ethical governance. By fostering a more stable and accountable economic future, the nation can not only overcome the immediate challenges posed by defaulted loans but also lay the groundwork for sustained growth. The trajectory chosen in the coming days will reverberate through the global financial community, shaping perceptions and contributing to the narrative of Bangladesh as a responsible player in the international economic arena. The imperative for change is clear, and with concerted efforts, Bangladesh has the potential to emerge from this crisis stronger and more resilient than ever before.

Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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