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Crisis in Islamic Banking: Five Shariah-Based Banks Face Imminent Closure of Transaction Services

Crisis in Islamic Banking: Five Shariah-Based Banks Face Imminent Closure of Transaction Services

The financial pulse of Bangladesh is experiencing a disconcerting rhythm as a seismic development unfolds, threatening the operational viability of five prominent Shariah-based banks. This impending crisis stems from a prolonged and severe cash shortage that has plunged these institutions into a precarious position. The gravity of the situation has prompted a decisive response from the Bangladesh Bank, the nation’s central banking authority, which has issued a stringent ultimatum in an attempt to avert a potential financial meltdown. Among the financial entities caught in the crossfire of this looming upheaval are some of Bangladesh’s most reputable Islamic banks, including Islami Bank, Social Islami Bank, First Security Islami Bank, Global Islami Bank, and Union Bank.

The issuance of a stern ultimatum by the Bangladesh Bank underscores the urgency and severity of the crisis at hand. This regulatory intervention serves as both a warning and a directive, compelling the affected banks to address the root causes of the protracted cash shortage within a stipulated timeframe. The implications of the impending closure of transaction services extend beyond the immediate concerns of the involved banks, resonating within the broader economic landscape. The significance of these developments cannot be overstated, as they invite a comprehensive examination of the structural vulnerabilities within the Islamic banking sector in Bangladesh.

As the names of these reputable institutions become synonymous with financial uncertainty, the spotlight on Islami Bank, Social Islami Bank, First Security Islami Bank, Global Islami Bank, and Union Bank intensifies. Beyond the operational challenges faced by these banks, the impending crisis raises pertinent questions about the robustness of their internal financial management, risk mitigation strategies, and adherence to regulatory standards. This introduction sets the stage for a closer exploration of the multifaceted challenges contributing to the cash crisis, the regulatory responses initiated by the Bangladesh Bank, and the potential repercussions for the broader financial ecosystem in Bangladesh.

In the chapters that follow, we delve into the intricacies of the crisis, examining the factors that have led to the negative current account balances and liquidity challenges faced by these banks. We also explore the regulatory landscape and the implications of non-compliance, shedding light on the delicate balance that regulatory authorities must strike between ensuring financial stability and facilitating the continued operations of financial institutions. The unfolding drama within Bangladesh’s Islamic banking sector serves as a poignant reminder of the fragility inherent in financial systems and the imperative for robust governance, transparency, and regulatory oversight to weather unforeseen challenges.

Current Account Crisis:

At the heart of the impending closure of financial transaction services for the five Shariah-based banks lies a persistent and troubling negative current account status with the Bangladesh Bank. This critical issue has been allowed to fester over an extended period, raising eyebrows within the financial regulatory landscape. Despite receiving repeated notifications and alarms, the banks in question have regrettably failed to undertake substantial actions to rectify the precarious situation.

The negative current account status serves as a red flag, indicating a fundamental misalignment with standard banking practices. It suggests a deviation from the established norms and practices that govern financial institutions, thereby posing a threat to the stability and credibility of the affected banks. In response to this alarming state of affairs, the Bangladesh Bank, as the regulatory authority, has taken a decisive step by issuing a compelling 20-day ultimatum.

The ultimatum issued by Bangladesh Bank carries significant weight, serving as both a warning and a call to action. It unequivocally communicates that the failure to adjust the negative balance within the stipulated 20-day timeframe will result in severe consequences, including the suspension of clearing and settling systems for the beleaguered banks. This regulatory measure is not merely a bureaucratic formality but a crucial intervention aimed at safeguarding the broader financial ecosystem from potential disruptions caused by the negligence of these institutions.

The ultimatum acts as a catalyst, compelling the banks to urgently reassess their financial standing and take remedial measures to address the negative current account balances. It underscores the urgency of the situation and signals that the Bangladesh Bank is resolute in its commitment to upholding the integrity and stability of the financial sector.

As the countdown begins, the affected banks find themselves at a crossroads, facing a critical juncture that demands swift and decisive action. The next 20 days will undoubtedly be pivotal in determining the fate of these institutions and, by extension, the reputation of the broader Islamic banking sector in Bangladesh. The outcome of this regulatory intervention will echo far beyond the boardrooms of the concerned banks, resonating throughout the financial corridors of the nation.

Liquidity Woes and Bangladesh Bank’s Dilemma:

The financial quagmire facing the five Shariah-based banks is further complicated by a prolonged and debilitating liquidity crisis that has persisted for an entire year. This crisis, characterized by a severe shortage of cash, has cast a shadow over the financial health of these institutions, deepening the challenges they face. Despite witnessing an uptick in deposits, the root of the problem lies in the failure to channel essential funds, such as the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), back into the central bank.

Traditionally, the CRR and SLR serve as financial safeguards, ensuring a proportion of a bank’s deposits is maintained with the central bank to meet regulatory requirements. In the case of these five Islamic banks, the failure to deposit these crucial funds has triggered the calculation of penalty interest, further exacerbating their already precarious financial situation. This punitive measure, enforced by the Bangladesh Bank, reflects the severity of the liquidity crisis and aims to encourage compliance with established financial norms.

While grappling with the repercussions of this liquidity shortfall, the Bangladesh Bank finds itself in a delicate predicament. Despite the evident strains on the financial capabilities of these banks, Bangladesh Bank has extended a lifeline by continuing to lend them money. This strategic move is intended to prevent a ripple effect that could impact customers, ensuring they can continue to access their deposits without disruptions.

However, the sustainability of this support is now under scrutiny. The persistent liquidity crisis raises concerns about the efficacy of the Bangladesh Bank’s approach and the potential risks associated with protracted financial assistance. As the central bank treads the fine line between stabilizing the financial sector and preventing a cascading impact on customers, questions loom about the long-term viability of sustaining such support for institutions facing deep-rooted financial challenges.

The dilemma faced by the Bangladesh Bank underscores the intricate balancing act required in navigating the complexities of the financial sector. The ongoing provision of financial aid, while alleviating immediate concerns, necessitates a broader examination of systemic issues affecting these banks. The coming days will undoubtedly test the resilience of Bangladesh Bank’s strategies and shed light on the effectiveness of its interventions in steering the financial ship away from turbulent waters.

Bangladesh Bank’s Statement and Lending Practices:

Bangladesh Bank, in its defense, contends that it is providing regular financial assistance to prevent customers from facing difficulties in withdrawing their deposits. However, questions arise regarding the prudence of lending money to banks with negative current account balances. This apparent contradiction raises concerns about the effectiveness of Bangladesh Bank’s lending practices in addressing the underlying issues faced by these Islamic banks.

Central Bank’s Warning and Banks’ Silence:

The stern warning issued by the Bangladesh Bank serves as a pivotal moment in the unfolding saga of the five Shariah-based banks facing the specter of halted financial services. The letter, marked by explicit language and an unwavering tone, underscores the severity of the situation. It explicitly communicates the potential consequences: a complete cessation of critical services, including check clearing, online money transfers, and ATM services, should the negative current account balances remain unaddressed within the specified timeframe.

This regulatory ultimatum is not merely a procedural formality but a decisive measure intended to jolt the banks into immediate action. The explicit mention of services vital to everyday banking operations serves as a stark reminder of the far-reaching impact of the impending crisis. Check clearing services ensure the smooth flow of transactions, online money transfers facilitate seamless financial transactions, and ATMs are indispensable for customers in accessing their funds. The threat of disruption to these services injects a sense of urgency into the situation, demanding swift resolution.

However, amidst the escalating crisis and the Bangladesh Bank’s unequivocal warning, a conspicuous silence blankets the offices of the managing directors of the five affected banks—Islami Bank, Social Islami Bank, First Security Islami Bank, Global Islami Bank, and Union Bank. Despite the gravity of the situation and the potential fallout for both the banks and their customers, there has been no official response to media inquiries as of now.

This silence raises intriguing questions about the banks’ preparedness, communication strategies, and the internal deliberations taking place within their boardrooms. Is the lack of response a tactical move to buy time for behind-the-scenes negotiations, or does it signify a deeper internal turmoil within these financial institutions? The absence of a public-facing stance also leaves customers and stakeholders in a state of uncertainty, as they grapple with the looming possibility of disrupted financial services.

As the countdown to the Bangladesh Bank’s deadline ticks away, the silence from the managing directors adds an air of mystery to an already complex situation. It remains to be seen whether this quietude is a prelude to a comprehensive and strategic response or an indication of internal challenges that may further complicate the resolution of the crisis. The coming days will undoubtedly reveal the unfolding dynamics between the regulatory authority and the affected banks, shedding light on the resilience and adaptability of the Islamic banking sector in the face of a formidable challenge.

Regulatory Compliance and Deposit Requirements:

The unfolding crisis in Bangladesh’s Islamic banking sector brings to the forefront concerns regarding regulatory compliance and deposit requirements. Shariah-based banks in the country are bound by a mandate stipulating that they must maintain 4 percent of their deposits as Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR). This regulatory measure is designed to act as a safeguard, ensuring a financial buffer that can be tapped into in times of need, ultimately protecting the interests of depositors.

However, a disconcerting revelation emerges from the current predicament: none of the five aforementioned banks, namely Islami Bank, Social Islami Bank, First Security Islami Bank, Global Islami Bank, and Union Bank, have managed to meet this fixed rate. This failure to adhere to the prescribed regulatory standards raises critical questions about the robustness of their internal controls, risk management practices, and overall governance structures.

The inability to maintain the mandated CRR not only reflects a deviation from established norms but also exposes these banks to heightened risks. The 4 percent CRR requirement is not arbitrary; it is a calculated measure aimed at fortifying the financial resilience of banks and, by extension, ensuring the security of depositors’ funds. The current lapse in compliance underscores a systemic weakness within these financial institutions, bringing into question their ability to safeguard the financial interests of their clientele.

In the face of this non-compliance, the potential risks to depositors become a focal point of concern. Should these banks fail to rectify their CRR positions and address the negative current account balances within the stipulated timeframe, the ramifications could extend beyond the operational challenges currently faced. Depositors may find themselves in a vulnerable position, and the broader reputation of the Islamic banking sector in Bangladesh may be compromised.


As the countdown to the 20-day deadline set by the Bangladesh Bank continues, the convergence of liquidity woes, regulatory non-compliance, and the silence of the affected banks’ leadership creates a perfect storm in the country’s Islamic banking sector. The challenges faced by Islami Bank, Social Islami Bank, First Security Islami Bank, Global Islami Bank, and Union Bank underscore the need for a comprehensive reassessment of internal policies, risk management frameworks, and regulatory adherence.

The situation demands urgent and transparent action from the concerned banks to rectify their CRR positions and address the negative current account balances. Additionally, the regulatory authorities, led by the Bangladesh Bank, must play a proactive role in ensuring that the financial ecosystem remains stable and resilient.

The conclusion of this crisis will hinge on the ability of the affected banks to navigate the multifaceted challenges they face, rectify compliance shortcomings, and regain the trust of depositors and stakeholders. Simultaneously, it will serve as a litmus test for the efficacy of regulatory oversight within the Islamic banking sector, highlighting the importance of stringent adherence to established standards for the sustained health of the financial industry in Bangladesh.

Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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