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Market Manipulation, Corruption, and Syndicates: The Strain on Bangladesh’s Economy

Bangladesh’s economy is currently facing significant challenges, exacerbated by market manipulation, corruption, and syndicates. These issues have not only strained the economy but have also undermined confidence in the financial sector and the overall economic stability of the country.

 Forced Bank Mergers and Economic Instability

Recent attempts at hastily imposed bank mergers have brought to light the deep-seated issues plaguing the banking sector in Bangladesh. These mergers, often characterized by their forced and arbitrary nature, have generated significant discomfort among robust banks and reluctance from their weaker counterparts. The forced nature of these mergers has intensified apprehension and instability within the sector, raising questions about the underlying rationale and transparency of these decisions even before their implementation. Media reports indicate that, out of the involved institutions, only one weak bank showed voluntary interest in merging, while the stronger banks were effectively coerced into the process. This scenario points to an arbitrary approach lacking a comprehensive assessment of the assets and liabilities of the weak banks, potentially transferring the burden of defaults and financial frauds onto the shoulders of the stronger, more stable banks.

The arbitrariness of these mergers underscores a broader systemic issue within the banking sector. Without a detailed and transparent evaluation of the weak banks’ financial health, the forced mergers seem more like a strategy to mask underlying problems rather than address them. This approach risks exacerbating existing financial vulnerabilities and spreading instability across the sector. The stronger banks, which have demonstrated resilience and sound financial practices, may find themselves saddled with the liabilities of the weaker banks, including bad debts and fraudulent activities. This not only undermines the financial stability of the strong banks but also erodes public confidence in the banking system. Consequently, the lack of transparency and thorough assessment in these mergers threatens to deepen the crisis in the banking sector, highlighting the need for a more strategic and transparent approach to bank consolidation.

 The Impunity of Banking Frauds

The confusion and opacity surrounding the recent bank mergers have heightened concerns regarding bad debt management and accountability within the banking sector. It seems that these mergers may serve as a mechanism to avoid addressing the core issues of financial mismanagement and fraud. By merging weak banks with stronger ones, the authorities appear to be sidestepping the need for legal action against defaulters and individuals involved in financial scams. This practice fosters a culture where defaulting on loans is protected rather than penalized, fundamentally undermining the banking sector’s credibility. The lack of accountability allows those responsible for significant financial losses to escape scrutiny, perpetuating a cycle of impunity.

This approach has far-reaching implications for the industry. Protecting defaulters and fraudsters erodes trust in the financial system, leading to widespread unease and apprehension among stakeholders. Strong banks, which have adhered to prudent financial practices, are now at risk of inheriting the liabilities and poor management practices of weaker institutions. This not only jeopardizes their financial stability but also deters potential investors and depositors who might lose confidence in the banking system’s integrity. The resultant climate of mistrust and instability calls for urgent reforms to ensure transparency, enforce accountability, and restore faith in the banking sector. Addressing these issues head-on is essential for the long-term health and stability of Bangladesh’s financial system.

 Economic Pressures and Inflation

Bangladesh is currently grappling with a confluence of economic pressures that threaten its financial stability and growth prospects. Revenue collection has slowed significantly, undermining the government’s ability to fund essential services and development projects. At the same time, the cost of daily necessities has surged, placing a substantial burden on the population, especially low-income individuals. The banking sector is experiencing a liquidity crisis, compounded by dwindling foreign exchange reserves. High inflation, which has persisted for an extended period, is eroding the purchasing power of consumers, forcing many to deplete their savings and withdraw deposits from banks. This scenario has prompted the authorities to raise interest rates in an attempt to curb inflation. However, higher interest rates have had the unintended consequence of stifling investment and employment, particularly in the industrial and service sectors, further exacerbating the economic challenges.

The impact of these pressures is multifaceted and deeply felt across various segments of the economy. High inflation, which has become a persistent issue, diminishes the real income of households, reducing their ability to afford basic goods and services. As a result, consumer spending declines, adversely affecting businesses and slowing economic growth. The liquidity crisis in banks has led to tighter credit conditions, making it difficult for businesses to secure the financing needed for expansion and operations. This, in turn, hampers industrial output and service delivery, leading to lower economic productivity and increased unemployment. The combination of slowed revenue collection, rising costs, and constrained banking operations paints a bleak picture for Bangladesh’s economic outlook. It underscores the urgent need for comprehensive policy measures to stabilize the economy, restore confidence in the financial system, and protect the purchasing power of its citizens.

Market Manipulation and Corruption: Strains on Bangladesh’s Economy

Market manipulation and pervasive corruption have inflicted severe damage on Bangladesh’s economy, exacerbating existing challenges and creating new economic hurdles. Syndicates, which wield significant influence over market conditions, further intensify these issues, leading to unprecedented economic difficulties. The manipulation of prices and market conditions by these syndicates distorts fair competition, stifles innovation, and undermines consumer confidence.

The economy finds itself at a critical juncture where traditional approaches are no longer sufficient to address the deep-rooted issues of market manipulation and corruption. These practices not only erode trust in the economic system but also deter foreign investment and hinder sustainable growth. What is urgently needed is strong and selfless political leadership willing to implement tough reforms aimed at dismantling syndicates, enhancing regulatory oversight, and promoting transparency in business practices.

Restoring integrity to markets and combating corruption are imperative for fostering a conducive environment for economic prosperity. Without decisive action, Bangladesh risks prolonged economic stagnation and continued hardship for its population. By tackling these systemic challenges head-on, policymakers can pave the way for a more resilient and inclusive economy that benefits all citizens.

 Debt Trap and Revenue Challenges

Bangladesh is grappling with a challenging debt situation, characterized by mounting external debt and increasing debt service obligations. In response to insufficient revenue collection, the government has been compelled to secure new loans under increasingly burdensome terms to service existing debt. As of September 2023, both domestic and foreign debt surpassed $100 billion, raising concerns about the country’s capacity to repay its debts. While the external debt-to-GDP ratio remains relatively moderate at 21.6 percent, the growing burden of debt service payments underscores the urgency of addressing revenue shortfalls and restructuring the debt portfolio.

The composition of Bangladesh’s loan portfolio is evolving, marked by a decline in concessional loans and a rise in market-based loans with stricter repayment terms. This shift reflects a broader trend towards financing that imposes higher costs and tighter repayment schedules on the government. These developments highlight the need for prudent fiscal management and strategic debt restructuring to mitigate risks and ensure sustainable debt levels. Addressing revenue challenges through enhanced tax collection and economic reforms is crucial to easing the pressure on public finances and safeguarding Bangladesh’s long-term economic stability.

Inflation and Revenue Collection: Economic Pressures in Bangladesh

Inflation and currency mismanagement have compounded economic pressures in Bangladesh, exacerbating existing challenges such as inadequate revenue collection and widening income inequality. High inflation rates have significantly eroded the purchasing power of low-income individuals, forcing them to spend more on basic necessities while saving less. This inflationary pressure also increases the cost of doing business, further straining economic activities across sectors.

The impact of inflation is intertwined with issues of corruption and mismanagement, which have distorted economic processes and hindered effective revenue collection. As a result, the government faces difficulties in generating sufficient income through direct taxation, thereby relying more heavily on indirect taxes that burden consumers and businesses alike. This shift in revenue collection methods exacerbates income inequality and reduces disposable income, particularly among vulnerable populations.

Moreover, syndicates exerting control over market conditions exacerbate these economic challenges by manipulating prices and stifling fair competition. This creates an environment of uncertainty and instability, further hindering economic growth and investor confidence.

Addressing these complex economic issues requires policymakers to prioritize restoring macroeconomic stability through comprehensive reforms. This includes strengthening fiscal management, enhancing transparency in governance, and implementing measures to combat corruption and market manipulation. By addressing these underlying issues, Bangladesh can pave the way for sustainable economic growth and improve the well-being of its citizens.

Decline in Banking Transactions: Economic Implications

The decline in banking transactions in Bangladesh serves as a stark indicator of the country’s current economic challenges. Persistently high inflation, surpassing 9 percent for over two years, has profoundly impacted public life and economic activities. This prolonged inflationary pressure has eroded the purchasing power of consumers, forcing them to prioritize essential spending over discretionary purchases. Consequently, there has been a notable decrease in credit card and debit card transactions, reflecting subdued consumer confidence and reduced spending capacity.

The slowdown in banking transactions underscores broader economic stagnation and hesitancy among consumers and businesses alike. It highlights the adverse effects of inflation on economic behavior, where individuals and enterprises limit their financial transactions and investment activities in response to uncertain economic conditions. This trend not only reflects the immediate impact of inflation but also suggests deeper concerns about the overall economic outlook and financial stability in Bangladesh.

Addressing the decline in banking transactions requires concerted efforts to mitigate inflationary pressures, enhance economic resilience, and restore consumer confidence. Policymakers must implement effective measures to stabilize prices, improve income distribution, and foster a conducive environment for economic growth. By revitalizing banking activities and bolstering consumer trust, Bangladesh can navigate its current economic challenges and pave the way for sustainable recovery and prosperity.

 Impact on Development and Revenue

The economic slowdown in Bangladesh has exerted a profound impact on both development projects and revenue collection, highlighting significant challenges for the country’s fiscal health and growth prospects. The implementation rate of the Annual Development Program (ADP), a critical driver of infrastructure and socio-economic projects, has plummeted to its lowest level in the past decade. As of the first eight months of the 2023-24 financial year, only 31.17 percent of the ADP has been successfully implemented. This dismal performance underscores the constraints faced by the government in executing vital developmental initiatives amid financial constraints and economic uncertainty.

Moreover, the downturn has severely hampered revenue collection efforts, exacerbating fiscal pressures and constraining public spending capabilities. In the first seven months of the current financial year, revenue collection fell short by 17,751 crores compared to targets, reflecting the broader economic slowdown’s impact on business activities and tax revenues. This shortfall not only impedes the government’s ability to finance essential services and infrastructure projects but also underscores the urgent need for effective economic policies to stimulate growth and revenue generation.

Addressing these challenges requires decisive action to revitalize economic activity, enhance revenue mobilization mechanisms, and streamline development project implementation. By prioritizing strategic investments, fostering a conducive business environment, and promoting sustainable economic policies, Bangladesh can mitigate the adverse effects of the economic slowdown and foster long-term economic resilience and prosperity.

Bangladesh’s Economic Development and Future Challenges

Despite facing significant economic challenges, Bangladesh has demonstrated resilience and progress through coordinated efforts among regulators, entrepreneurs, and policymakers. This collaborative approach has been instrumental in driving the country’s development trajectory, enabling it to achieve milestones such as transitioning from a low-income to a lower-middle-income country in 2015. However, as Bangladesh prepares to graduate from its least developed country (LDC) status in 2026, it faces critical transitions and new challenges ahead.

The impending loss of trade facilities associated with LDC status necessitates a strategic shift towards high-tech production and exports. This shift is crucial for sustaining economic growth and avoiding potential pitfalls such as falling into a middle-income trap or accumulating unsustainable debt levels. Bangladesh must capitalize on its strengths in labor-intensive industries while simultaneously investing in technology, innovation, and skills development to enhance productivity and competitiveness in global markets.

Moreover, navigating these transitions requires proactive policies that promote inclusive growth, address income inequality, and foster a conducive business environment. Strengthening institutional frameworks, enhancing regulatory capabilities, and promoting private sector engagement will be essential to leveraging Bangladesh’s economic potential and achieving sustainable development goals.

By embracing these challenges as opportunities for transformation and renewal, Bangladesh can chart a course towards a resilient and diversified economy, ensuring continued progress and prosperity for its people. Through strategic planning and bold reforms, Bangladesh can consolidate its position as a dynamic player in the global economy while enhancing economic stability and resilience against future uncertainties.


Bangladesh stands at a critical juncture in its economic journey, grappling with formidable challenges stemming from market manipulation, corruption, and the influence of syndicates. The forced mergers in the banking sector, coupled with escalating debt levels, persistent inflation, and faltering revenue collection, underscore the urgent need for decisive action.

To steer the economy towards sustainable growth, strong political leadership is indispensable. Comprehensive reforms are imperative to address systemic issues, restore confidence in the financial sector, and combat illicit practices that undermine economic stability. These reforms should prioritize transparency, accountability, and the rule of law to mitigate the adverse effects of corruption and market distortions.

Moreover, Bangladesh’s impending graduation from least developed country (LDC) status in 2026 presents both opportunities and challenges. Embracing high-tech production and export-oriented growth strategies will be crucial to unlocking new economic potentials and safeguarding against potential pitfalls, such as falling into a middle-income trap or unsustainable debt burdens.

In conclusion, navigating these complexities requires a strategic and collaborative approach involving all sectors of society. By harnessing its strengths, fostering innovation, and implementing forward-looking policies, Bangladesh can achieve sustainable economic development and improve the well-being of its people in the years to come.


  1. “Bangladesh’s Economy: Struggling to Recover,” The Daily Star, accessed July 1, 2024.
  2. “Forced Bank Mergers Raise Concerns in Bangladesh,” Financial Express, accessed July 1, 2024.
  3. “Inflation and Revenue Collection Issues in Bangladesh,” Dhaka Tribune, accessed July 1, 2024.
  4. “Bangladesh’s Debt Trap: Challenges and Solutions,” The Business Standard, accessed July 1, 2024.
  5. “Economic Slowdown Reflected in Banking Transactions,” Prothom Alo, accessed July 1, 2024.
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossainhttps://www.hlnews.xyz
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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